Rss Feed
Tweeter button
Facebook button

Archives for July 5, 2017

Sprucing Up Your Garden for Summer, the Tropical Way

Fernando Wong knows how to make a lush, enviable garden. The accomplished landscape architect has done so time and time again for his various private clients. So, in case your own plot of land needs a mid-summer refresh, we asked Wong to share a little bit of advice. Below, Wong sounds off on everything from quick fixes to involved upgrades. All you’ll need to do now is to make sure that your green thumb is ready to spring into action.

What are some easy ways that people can upgrade their gardens for summer?

Fernando Wong: Flowers are always a great initial source of inspiration. Aesthetically, I tend to stick to a limited color palette: two colors, one being green and the other usually being white or blue. White vinca and blue plumbago are personal favorites. They thrive in both northern and southern climates and invoke a Hamptons or Palm Beach vibe.

What are some ways that people can make their gardens feel like a true escape?

FW: Cuban laurel hedges and water features are both excellent ways to cultivate a private escape. Outdoor lighting is also a simple but effective way to create that sanctuary appeal. Stringing Italian lights in your trees is also a fast addition if you want a romantic atmosphere for night.

For a more traditional European look, but with an eclectic twist, I love the exquisite pavilions from Authentic Provence—our go-to for garden antiques. Its exclusive line of “haute couture” French and Italian tents and parasols make for indulgent exterior spaces that one might imagine were frequented by the likes of F. Scott Fitzgerald or Coco Chanel.

When it comes to more permanent options, or designs that evoke contemporary culture, Kettal offers expressive, customized pavilions made out of metal and wood. Its outdoor furniture is creative yet functional and developed specifically for each project.

Finally, for a truly cutting-edge, fantasy-worthy upgrade, Roche Bobois’s new outdoor collection is a must. It offers some anything-but-ordinary options. Its Mucidule side table is a modern take on a lily pad—simultaneously simple and fun.

Any tips for creating a lush, or even tropical, garden?

FW: White bird-of-paradise brings vegetation that has a gorgeous shape to it, and can work in multiple environments and climates. Palm trees are also a fail-safe addition when trying to bring a tropical touch to any landscape.

If you don’t live in a climate that is amenable to those types of plants, are there any small touches that you can add to get the look, so to speak?

FW: Perhaps the most simple, easily available option are succulents. They make both outdoor and indoor summer spaces instantaneously chic.

Article source:

Tips to make your backyard more appealing this summer – Portland …

Summer is home to many of the year’s most beautiful days, so who can blame you for wanting to spend them all outside? Your yard becomes your living room and your patio the kitchen. It’s your home away from home.

If your home’s outdoor space lacks the comfort and appeal you are longing for, now is the perfect time to transform your backyard into the perfect outdoor oasis you can enjoy all summer long.

To get started upgrading your backyard without breaking the bank, follow these tips.


• A place to gather. Think of the parties you’ve hosted in your home. They’ve probably all had a common gathering place such as the kitchen counter, the living room couch or the dining room table.

Your outdoor space needs a similar location and a dining set naturally invites guests to relax. Five-piece dining sets are perfect for more intimate gatherings, while seven-piece sets comfortably accommodate larger crowds.

• The focal point of your kitchen. Grilling out is a staple of any summer party, so if your existing grill isn’t hitting all cylinders, it’s time for an upgrade.

The Master Forge 5-Burner Modular Gas Grill features four heavy-duty burners, one infrared searing burner and one infrared rotisserie burner, giving you a solution for any menu choice. Plus, its built-in halogen lights can keep your party going long into the night.

• A place to relax. The sofas and armchairs in your living room are popular sitting destinations during any indoor event, and you can create the same environment outdoors with sectional patio furniture.

The Garden Treasures Palm City Patio Sectional Furniture features sleek and sturdy black steel frames coupled with tan Olefin cushions that up the comfort level. When you sit, you’ll never want to leave.

• A little shade goes a long way. An all-day party means plenty of sun, and when guests need a break from the heat, it’s good to provide an area of relief.

Patio umbrellas are an affordable option, available in 8½ and 9-foot varieties, providing ample coverage for a large gathering. To keep the awning a hot destination into the evening, look for an umbrella outfitted with LED lights.

• The perfect accents. The difference between a backyard and an outdoor oasis is in the details you add to your space. Island King Garden Torches bring light to any situation.

With durable metal construction and a long-lasting fiberglass wick, these lights will keep their look in any conditions. To add a little extra green space to your outdoor entertaining area, consider purchasing raised garden beds. They provide a grand ambiance upgrade to your oasis at an affordable price.

Implement any of the upgrades listed above and you’ll be able to enjoy the season’s greatest days from your brand-new oasis. To find everything you need to remake your backyard, without breaking your bank, visit






Send questions/comments to the editors.

Article source:

Grow A Great Summer At The Paul J. Ciener Botanical Garden

Tackling Pesky Summer Pests In Your Garden

Article source:

Janet Meakin Poor, gardener active with Chicago Botanic Garden, dies at 87

Janet Meakin Poor began, as many gardeners do, by growing flowers in her yard.

But from there she went on to take a leadership role with the Chicago Botanic Garden, where she

 Her vision focused on conservation, research and the value of plant diversity, subjects she explored in two books.

“Unquestionably, Janet was one of the principal drivers of the (Chicago Botanic) Garden’s current place as global leader across horticulture, plant science conservation research and education,” current board chair Bob Finke said in a note to associates.

University of Wisconsin-Madison to earn a degree in landscape design and horticulture, her son said.

A’Design Awards and Competition announces 2017 winners

Dezeen promotion: cantilevered holiday cabins in Norway, a faceted coastal sauna in Finland and a peculiar black house are among the winners of this year’s A’ Design Award and Competition.

Manshausen Hospitality, Sport, Hotel, Wellness/Spa by Snorre Stinessen. Platinum A’ Design Award Winner for Architecture, Building and Structure Design Category

The A’ Design Awards takes place annually and recognises projects from around the world with design prizes in categories including, architecture, interiors, landscaping and design.

This year there were 1,958 winners from 98 countries in 97 different design disciplines.

Löyly by Avanto Architects. Platinum A’ Design Award Winner for Architecture, Building and Structure Design Category

Among the winning projects are the glass and timber holiday cabins that Norwegian architect Snorre Stinessen designed to overhang the coastline of Norway’s Manshausen Island.

The Manshausen Island Resort, which provides a base for Arctic Circle explorers on hiking, fishing, skiing and diving trips, received an award in the Architecture, Building and Structure Design category.

Black Eagle Residential House by Perathoner Architects. Platinum A’ Design Award Winner for Architecture, Building and Structure Design Category

Helsinki-based Avanto Architects were also awarded in this category for a waterfront sauna called Löyly in the Finnish capital. The multi-faceted front is made up of wooden slats and bleachers so that visitors can clamber to the roof and sunbathe with a view of the sea.

Misty Bamboo Exhibition Space by Kydo. Golden A’ Design Award Winner for Interior Space and Exhibition Design Category

Black Eagle house in the Dolomites mountain range designed by Italian studio Perathoner Architects took a prize for its “peculiar architectural style”, which uses traditional materials, like larch and stone, in strong geometric shapes.

Peninsula Clubhouse Leisure space by Joe Chan for CITIC Real Estate. Golden A’ Design Award Winner for Interior Space and Exhibition Design Category

Winners in the Interior Space and Exhibition Design category include the exhibition hall that Taiwan studio Keng-Yu Design created for the Creative Expo Taiwan. It features bamboo frames filled with tea canisters and polypropylene sheets that refract light.

The Alchemist Office by Atelier E Limited. Golden A’ Design Award Winner for Interior Space and Exhibition Design Category

Other winners in this category include the office space that Hong Kong-based Atelier E Limited with recycled timber planks. Hong Kong designer Joe Chan also took a prize for a clubhouse with volcanic rock walls and black marble floors, which take cues from mountain ranges in China’s Hainan Province.

Lock and Be Free Urban locker by Wanna One. Platinum A’ Design Award Winner for Interior Space and Exhibition Design Category

Bright yellow lockers and white peg-board walls were a successful combination for Spanish studio Wanna One’s Lock and Be Free Urban locker project, while Chinese studio Coordination Asia’s Shanghai Film Museum won an award for its mix of interactive and historic elements.

The Pavilia Hill Premium Condominium Landscape by Shunmyo Masuno. Platinum A’ Design Award Winner for Landscape Planning and Garden Design Category

Japanese garden designer Shunmyo Masuno was awarded for the landscaping of the Pavilla Hill Premium Condominium, including a meditation room with a waterfall that fills the floor with water.

Other prizes went to a skyscraper with stepped gardens by Hong Kong firm Aedas, a 40-metre-high curved transport hub by Aedas’ Andrew Bromberg and a pavilion based on honeycomb construction.

Shanghai Film Museum Museum by Coordination Asia. Platinum A’ Design Award Winner for Interior Space and Exhibition Design Category

Each of the winners receives a trophy, a certificate and a book, as well as PR and marketing services. These include the translated descriptions of award-winning works, press-release preparation and distribution, lifetime license to use “award winner” logo, a public relations campaign for winners, and communication of awarded works to members of the media.

Pone Nest Aspiration Experience Pavilion by Pone Architecture. Golden A’ Design Award Winner for Interior Space and Exhibition Design Category

Full project descriptions and a list of winning projects is available on the A’Design Award website.

Registration is now open for next year’s competition. Designers, artists, architects and companies can register and submit their works on the A’ Design Award and Competition.

Article source:

Flower power: welcome to RHS Hampton Court

RHS Hampton Court Palace Flower Show is a great highlight of the horticultural calendar. Set against the regal backdrop of one of Britain’s most stunning palaces, it never fails to delight and inspire visitors.
“I’ve been coming along for nearly 20 years now,” says TV gardener and columnist David Domoney. “Each year I still feel that great buzz of excitement – it’s one of my favourite events of the summer, a cross between a show and a festival that both entertains and inspires.
“The flower displays are just stunning, and the spectacular show gardens are impressive, to say the least. I would hope to always be a part of it.”

As well as being able to marvel at an impressive collection of gardens, visitors to this year’s show (4-9 July) will also be treated to a variety of interesting exhibitions and events. Once again, there will be the opportunity to wander through one of the big talking points of last year’s show: RHS Hampton Court Palace’s Butterfly Dome. The RHS Hampton Court Palace Flower Show Celebrity Theatre is also returning this year with a wildlife theme, where celebrities from popular gardening and nature programmes will share their passion and expertise throughout the week.

The show’s supporter, Everest will be showcasing the latest additions to its range of products at the event, set within three charity-inspired horticultural installations that visitors will be able to explore – all designed by Domoney. For each of the charities – Save the Orangutan, the Bat Conservation Trust and the British Trust for Ornithology (see box, below) – Domoney has tried to reflect their essence to visitors.

Purple patch: planting will encourage wildlife, including bats, into the garden


Domoney’s award-winning designs have long been wowing visitors at some of the country’s most prestigious events, and this summer he hopes to impress guests once again at RHS Hampton Court Palace Flower Show, embellishing Everest’s exhibit with these front garden displays.

“Each display measures 5m by 5m and mimics a front garden,” says Domoney. “My brief for each has been to make them evocative of what lies at the very heart of the charities that Everest has chosen to display this year.”

The installation for Save the Orangutan has a strong tropical theme, with a curved path that is designed to make visitors feel as if they’re walking along a jungle track. “It has three irregular-shaped beds and I’ve focused on vibrant tropical planting, including a banana tree and beautiful ferns, creating an interpretation of a tropical garden here in the UK. I’ve placed bark around the beds along with some random planting around the path to give a rustic feel.”

Another installation represents the Bat Conservation Trust. Domoney says: “This is a charity devoted to conservation and that strives to promote a world rich in wildlife, where bats and people thrive together. Bats are, of course, at the heart of this design, which features a sweeping path, kidney-shaped beds and beds filled with plants that attract insects, which are the staple food for these animals.

“There is also a kidney-shaped pond, which is essential for attracting more insects and to provide drinking water, along with bat boxes. And bedded into the lawn is a wonderful bat sculpture, created with different-coloured aggregates, that adds its own personality into the garden.”

The third charity that will feature at RHS Hampton Court Palace Flower Show this year is the British Trust for Ornithology. Domoney’s installation for this charity pays homage to the birds we love to see in our own gardens.

Woodpecking order: one installation pays homage to the birds we see in our garden


“This has a half-moon path and is planted with trees that provide shelter and food for the birds that love to visit our gardens. There are plants that will attract them, whether they’re looking for berries to eat or scrub for nesting material.

“All around the installation are bird baths, nesting boxes and feeding stations, which all help to attract wild birds and help them to thrive.”

Domoney says that he hopes these installations will prompt people to find out a little more about the charities they represent, while inspiring them to think about adding personality to their own front gardens.

“Your front garden can be so much more than a privet hedge and somewhere to park a couple of wheelie bins,” he says.

“Just as I have taken the message that lies at the heart of each of these charities, other people can use their front garden to reflect something of themselves out to the rest of the world.”

Make an impression

He adds: “Your front garden is the first thing people see when they pass or enter your home – it’s the impression they get of you as they approach your front door. Why not make it a space that showcases your personality and emulates your passions, in the same way that I am doing with Everest’s chosen charities?

“It’s something that will bring you great pleasure, and of course will give the postman something to talk about. Front gardens really are the place where even the most amateur of gardeners can get creative.”

For more information, visit

Article source:

Sam Cherenzia III, hard-charging boss and ‘selfless’ community benefactor, dies at 67

NORTH STONINGTON — Salvatore E. “Sam” Cherenzia, known for selfless dedication to his family and community and loyalty to his employees, died Saturday at his home in North Stonington.

“He was a selfless man, he only cared about the community and his family. He cared about everyone else,” said his son, Salvatore E. “Sam” Cherenzia IV.

Sam Cherenzia, 67, ran the Cherenzia Companies with his late brother Raymond. The business — which is involved in construction, quarry materials, and engineering — grew out of an earlier family business, Cherenzia Nigrelli Inc., which was started by the brothers’ father.

Although Ray Cherenzia was the public face of the company, Sam Cherenzia, who earned a bachelor’s degree in business administration from Quinnipiac University, was just as important, said Thomas J. Liguori Jr., the company’s house counsel.

Liguori grew up in Westerly with the Cherenzias and went to work for the company in the early ’80s. Liguori recalled that Sam was cautious about hiring him despite having been recommended by Ray.

“He checked with his sister, Joan, and then I had the Good House Keeping seal of approval,” Liguori said.

As a teenager in Westerly, Liguori said the kids who knew Ray and Sam benefited at the family’s Blue Sands club in Misquamicut. On Wednesday nights, back in the day, the club hosted a non-alcoholic teen night. “There were two entrances,” Liguori said. “One for the public and one for the kids who knew Sam and Ray.”

Sergio Cherenzia, Sam’s nephew, said his uncle rarely hesitated to help local organizations. “He wouldn’t say ‘no’ to anybody whether it was financially or donating material,” Sergio said.

In particular, Sam was known for his support of local Scouting groups, the Denison Pequotsepos Nature Center in Mystic, and the Westerly-Pawcatuck YMCA, now Ocean Community YMCA.

Liguori recalled a time about 10 years ago when he attended a track meet at Westerly High School. During the meet, school officials observed that a shortage of jumping pits caused delays in the long jump competition. Soon after the meet, Liguori mentioned the situation to Sam.

“He said ‘OK, let’s donate the material for a new pit,’” Liguori said.

“He was in construction and rock so a lot of people might have thought he was a hard person, but he was a marshmallow,” Liguori said.

Sam IV and Sergio said their father and uncle could be a bit harder on them. “He put those he loved through their paces because he wanted us to succeed,” Sergio Cherenzia said.

Sam IV recalled being surprised by the duration of the runs and bicycle rides he took with his father. The runs were 5 miles and the bike rides 30 miles. “I remember thinking, ‘Are we ever going to turn around?’ He was a pusher.”

Those close to the family know of the efforts Sam undertook to help as his brother battled a brain tumor; Raymond died in 2010 at age 58.

“My dad was his best friend, his business partner and his brother. A little piece of him died that day when my dad died. He was never the same,” Sergio Cherenzia said.

In their youth, Sam and Ray were members of the YMCA Leaders Club. Maureen Fitzgerald, current executive director of the Y, said Sam told her about his longtime involvement soon after she met him in 2004. Sam remained an active user and member of the Y and was a stalwart donor, supporting its annual campaigns and its renovation and building project, and the Y’s summer camps for three decades. One of the donations was sand, every year for 25 years, for a beach at one of the camps.

“I was very, very sad to hear the news because Sam, like his brother Ray, was a very generous community supporter of a lot of nonprofit organizations and was a truly important person at the Y,” Fitzgerald said. “This is a tremendous loss to his family and to the community.”

Mary Buck went to work for Sam’s father, Salvatore E. Cherenzia Jr., in 1973 at the age of 18. She still works for the company and recalled the day in 1989 when Sam III told her he planned to buy a quarry on Old Hopkinton Road. “I told him he was crazy,” Buck said.

In hindsight, Buck said, the move proved to be a good one for the company. “He had a lot of foresight, he could see how things were going to go,” Buck said.

Buck is one of many long-term employees. Sam’s son said he routinely encounters co-workers who tell him they have worked at Cherenzia for as many as 30 years — a tribute, as he sees it, to his father’s loyalty.

In addition to the quarry, Cherenzia Companies developed nearly 300 condominiums during Sam Cherenzia’s tenure, including Village at Briar Hill in Norwich and Fountain Crest Preserve and Settler’s Landing in Westerly. Sam took particular pride in the look of the developments, both the facade of the buildings, their materials and landscaping, which reflected his design ideas, his son and Liguori said.

When Superstorm Sandy struck in October 2012, Cherenzia was contracted by the Town of Westerly to clean up the sand and debris that was deposited along Atlantic Avenue and the surrounding area. Sam Cherenzia secured permission from the state to set up a staging area in the Misquamicut State Beach parking lot for cleaning the sand and then putting it back on the beach. He also persuaded state officials to expedite, within hours, the transfer of heavy equipment by oversized load from a job site in northern Connecticut to Misquamicut. The company had Atlantic Avenue passable three days after the storm, a feat that surpassed the expectations of many in the storm area.

Amy Grzybowski, who served as the town’s emergency management director at the time of the storm, credited Sam Cherenzia with ensuring that the company’s work met standards set by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, a necessity for securing federal reimbursement.

“Sam exhibited the calm, even manner that was needed and was able to organize and direct a rapid response. We reached the timeline set by FEMA, which is amazing with how much sand we had,” Grzybowski said.

One of the unofficial goals of the cleanup was to put Misquamicut back together in time for the 2013 beach season. While many set their sites on the Memorial Day weekend as the goal, Cherenzia had a different idea.

“He knew people start to make their reservations in February and that they’d have to see substantial progress. He took it as a personal challenge,” Liguori said.

Cherenzia kept a photograph of the towering sand pyramids on his desk as a testament to the work.

Running the company was a full-time job. Cherenzia’s pickup truck was often observed in the parking lot of the company’s Mechanic Street headquarters in Pawcatuck on Saturday and Sundays. “I think he was here every day,” Mary Buck said.

“If he wasn’t here he was driving around the quarries,” Sergio Cherenzia said.

Article source:

Nonprofit floats ideas for enhancing, preserving San Clemente Pier

Imagine what a joy a bronze dolphin or other huggable creature could bring to the San Clemente Pier if placed on display. Imagine how many children would embrace it, how many family photos would be posed there.

Include a discreet donation slot, and the dolphin could become a way for visitors to say thanks and help the city and a local foundation called PierPride enhance the visitor experience on the 89-year-old pier.

The bronze dolphin is one of dozens of ideas that a San Clemente nonprofit called PierPride is floating around the community, as the organization raises funds to help the city preserve the 1,300-foot-long fishing pier built in 1928 by town founder Ole Hanson.


“The city has been a fantastic steward of the pier,” said Julia Darden, foundation president. The city will spend $1 million this year on a rehabilitation project the city must undertake about every five years. But funding is harder to come by, since in 2012 the state disbanded community redevelopment agencies, taking away what had been the major source of funding.

“When we lost this funding, it left a big gap between what we need and what the city can afford,” Darden said. “The mission of our organization is to fill that gap. While the city focuses on the infrastructure, what we focus on is doing what’s necessary to preserve the unique experience that so many of us have been able to grow up enjoying here in town.”

PierPride made its public debut last August, raised $100,000 and is in the process of repainting the pier’s railings with a proper sanding and a heavy-duty marine-resistant paint the pier likely hasn’t seen in decades.

At a June 19 stakeholders meeting, PierPride presented dozens of pier enhancement ideas to representatives from service clubs and the business community, inviting them to vote on their favorites and consider becoming a partner.

RSM Design, a San Clemente firm, signed on early as a partner and put together a package of what Darden called “blue sky” ideas, just for imagination.

If the community likes some of them and they wade successfully through the city’s approval process, the foundation can try to fund them.

They might include:

• Sprucing up the pier by painting town founder Ole Hanson’s SC logo on the side of a restroom building.

• Replacing regulatory signs with something warmer, more friendly, more likely to encourage compliance.

• A new flag pole could include space for hanging local artwork, or banners announcing coming events or activities.

• Interpretive signs could be upgraded and made interactive.

• At the pier entrance, a new landscape design could open up a better view of the pier.

• A little-used underpass to the pier could be brightened up and made more obvious, so more people would use it.

• Better bicycle racks, nicer showers and a set of surfboard lockers could upgrade public services.

• At the end of the pier, stylish benches could be installed around the perimeter of an open area that could be used for yoga, tai chi or other activities, even occasional special events. Or day to day, just to sit and watch the sunset.

• PierPride plans to work with Scott Shipley, new concessionaire at the end of the pier on fishing stewardship among fishermen, to encourage others to better clean up after themselves

• Individuals, organizations and businesses can volunteer by subscription to underwrite a more frequent cleaning of the pier than the city presently budgets.

By stuffing ballot boxes with fake money, attendees at the stakeholder meeting voted for favorites. High-ranking short-term opportunities included doubling the maintenance of the pier, a flagpole/banner program, interpretive signs, surfboard and beach amenities and fishing activities and stewardship.

Long-term favorites included a nicer pier underpass, a nicer at-grade entrance, a potential activity zone at the end of the pier, an interactive sculpture with donation bank and a nicer abode to replace the Retired Senior Volunteer Program’s hut at the pier.

The foundation will ask the city to proclaim September as PierPride Month, will hold a second annual “Light the Pier” fundraiser and will continue enlisting volunteers and sponsors.

See to learn more.

Article source:

Fun with ferns: Design options your customers will enjoy

large backyard fern

Photo: Megan Hansen/Flickr

When working on a garden project, your customer’s natural tendency may be to ask your recommendation on which flowers should go in their yard, but the prettiest plants aren’t always flowers.

While they may seem like plants that require a lot of attention and care, ferns are one of the easiest and most versatile plants to use in your customer’s landscape.

Ferns can go indoors, outdoors and in a multitude of different planter types, so they are excellent to use when your customers want to add some greenery and pizazz to their yard.

Ferns tend to grow mainly in moist environments, so hydration is key when planning where a fern will go. They do favor areas that are shaded, as they do not grow very well when placed in direct sunlight.

Design options

Flower beds: First and foremost, ferns can be used in your customer’s flower beds to add a good amount of greenery with not a lot of time and attention needed. Since ferns can come in a wide variety of looks, textures and sizes, this makes them the perfect plant to use in any size flower bed.

Planters, pots and hanging baskets: Whether your customers have horizontal or vertical planters, hanging baskets or potted plants, ferns can fit in while still standing out. Ferns mix well with a variety of beautiful and bright flowers, and a planter, potted fern or hanging basket can be a great focal point on any patio or backyard seating area.

Groundcovers: Often groundcovers are thought of low-growing plants, but certain ferns can be used to add height and filler for spaces where other plants cannot thrive. Ostrich ferns are good option for when filling in large shady spaces between trees.

Shade gardens: Because they are shade-loving plants, ferns are an essential addition to a customer’s shade garden. Holly fern, autumn fern, and Japanese painted fern are all beautiful options that offer both texture and color to compliment other shady plants like hostas.

Adding potted ferns or carefully arranged flower bed ferns around your customer’s landscape can help bring a bit of an exotic and oasis-like feel to the scene if they desire that look, or they can be used in formal pots and planters for a more prim and proper look. At the same time, having ferns planted sporadically around the yard can help give that jungle-like, unkempt look clients may crave if they are more into the free and natural look.

Whatever design your customer desires, it’s hard to go wrong when utilizing ferns. And for customers who may be looking for ways to add some flare to the entrance of their driveway, front porch or secret backyard garden, ferns can act as the perfect segue plant. They add the perfect balance of formal and casual to any scene, and all it takes is trying them out to unlock their potential.

Presented By:

Article source:

Masters in the garden





Article source: